soil erosion and conservation pdf

Meanwhile, soil erosion was becoming recognized as a serious problem in many countries and large-scale soil-conservation programs were launched in Africa and, a few years later, in Australia. Soil erosion and deforestation are the main forms of land degradation responsible for the decline in land productivity in turn reducing income of farm households in Ethiopia. on your farm and you want to control soil erosion. Accelerated erosion due to misuse of resources of land, water and soil is today one of the most difficult and pressing problems before man. • Selection and design of structures depend on: • Climate and the need to retain or discharge the runoff Soil erosion is a natural phenomenon by which soil is removed from rocks. Soil erosion control is an in-built component of this crop establishment package (Dharmasena, 2001). This is the General Knowledge Questions & Answers section on & Soil Erosion and Conservation& with explanation for various interview, competitive examination and entrance test. Normally, the land will possess a vegetational cover so as to prevent erosion. Thus, soil conservation is vital to the achievement of food 2.2: Physical soil conservation measures Physical soil conservation structures are permanent features made of earth, stones or masonry, designed to protect the soil from uncontrolled runoff and erosion and retain water where needed. Contour farming: Crops are cultivated along the contour of the land. Soil Erosion and Conservation provides a comprehensive treatment of the processes of soil erosion, the methods that can be used for their control, and the issues involved in designing and implementing soil conservation programmes. Both engineering and biological methods have been used to check the soil erosion but it is still without a plausible check. soil conservation has been carried out with limited success. Solved examples with detailed answer description, explanation are given and it would be easy to understand The plough marks will be on level and can hold the rain. Soil erosion is often the effect of many natural causes, such as water and wind. The following are some of the methods. conservation. allocated for soil conservation but also a soil conservation service was established to carry out a program which grew and has continued until today. There are also human factors which increase the rate of soil erosion such as … There is less-willingness to accept and maintain the extensively introduced practices of soil conservation. Soil erosion is removal of soil due to movement of water and/or air. Soil erosion is a major environmental problem with severe impacts on terrestrial and fluvial ecosystems (Smith et al. Soil erosion is one of the several major deteriorative processes which results in deterioration of the soil. 2016).Verheijen et al. However, there are other factors related to the soil erosion process that need similar attention in planning programs. guidelines for assessing soil quality in the conservation planning process. The issue of soil erosion is in many instances addressed by controlling water erosion. It is designed for field personnel of agencies, such as the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and Cooperative Extension ... subject to wind erosion, conservation tillage reduces the amount of particulate matter in the air. Soil conservation is defined as the control of soil erosion in order to maintain agricultural productivity. Five factors are used to figure soil loss: rainfall soil erodibility Soil Loss slope length and steepness cropping and management erosion control practices The measures to be followed must be patterned along the nature’s own methods of conservation. indicated that 3 to 40 t ha −1 of soil material is eroded in Europe every year, whereas mean soil formation rates do not exceed 0.3 to 1.4 t ha −1.It is well established that agricultural practices greatly influence soil erosion (Montgomery 2007). Calculating soil loss on your field The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation estimates the amount of soil erosion caused by water. Thus, reducing tillage Besides, soil erosion is a major contributor to the prevailing food insecurity of Ethiopia. 2. Can hold the rain practices of soil conservation is defined as the control of due... And the need to soil erosion and conservation pdf or discharge the runoff conservation major deteriorative processes which results in deterioration of the will. 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